What can be still unknown about leaves or what can be wrong in the written texts about the structure and physiology of plant leaf?
You read clever books about plants and it seems that everything in this question is already trampled, there is no clear place left!
Right here methodological distorted modern science came into friendly embrace of false views on the structure of the Universe and the structure of the wildlife.
A lot of things are written about the structure of a leaf but mostly one and the same thing. They «copy», plagiarize from each other and that’s all! And in the end of the book or article under the heading «References» they honestly write from whom they copied it.
Common people can’t really check what is written in the «references» with the help of experiment — powerful and also expensive multifunctional microscopes are required, modern research methods are needed and it is again modern and expensive equipment.
Creators of textbooks can’t afford such spendings.
There is no ordering customer for such researches and so there is no money.
The problem consists in one more thing — even if you are a great organizer, collected a lot of money, bought equipment and found out at last mistakes and deceit in the textbooks about the structure and life of plants you will still have waste years of your life to correct these mistakes — That which is written with a pen cannot be cut out with an axe!
You will think thousands of times before doubting something! That’s why practically no one doubts anything!
But the most important thing is that you should know exactly what you want to find in leaves or to approach researchers with clear head free of different theories.
Your scientists «know exactly» that «air nourishment and plant breathing exist» because in the leaves in the light «takes place synthesis of sugar from hydrogen of water and carbon taken from the atmospheric carbon dioxide». In what other way can sugar appear? Synthesis is everywhere a synthesis!
In reality neither scientists nor their opponents have the opportunity (there is no such equipment!)to see what processes take place in leaves (in chloroplasts, in DNA etc)
That’s why the one who is boss now is right:
What is there to look at? If there are holes-stomas in the leaves? There are! Then it means that air enters it? It does!
That’s all! Here you have formulae, study!
Due to the fact that on the modern scientific worldview exists a false concept about the synthetic structure of substance, no other variants of «production» of organic matter in the plant leaves but for photosynthesis are not accepted by the science.
Leaves in the heads of the scientists are also «structured» in favour of raving conception of photosynthesis.
Let’s see how leaves are structured in reality:
Cells in leaves are not placed in a slipshod way but in groups according to the placement of veining in leaves. Every group of cells has its stomas. From every cell to the general one for the group a microtubule is «stretched» to the container — intercellular space, it is even more a nanotubule through which escaping cell gases are being evacuated. It has nano cross-sections and represents a line pump and evacuates gases only in one direction — into the atmosphere. The pressure of gas in a tubule at the exit equals the atmospheric and at the other end in the intercellular space-container it is higher than atmospheric.
From the external side of the intercellular space through skin of a leaf between two «lying» cells goes a tubule into atmosphere — this’s a stoma.
The cells of the stoma press this tubule controlling gas discharge and thus providing in leaves the pressure higher than atmospheric to maintain the form of a plant.
For example, on the leaves of water plants there are no stomas (two horizontal pressing cells) because the pressure in them equals that of the environment. But intercellular spaces for the collection of discharging cell gases and their evacuation into atmosphere do exist!
The pressure in intercellular spaces is higher that atmospheric and equals the liquid pressure inside a leaf. If we open a stoma artificially with the help of a very thin «stick» an intercellular space under it is pressed and disappears from the view.
Intercellular space is an independent vessel; it has its own walls and is not formed by cell walls as it can be understood from the title.
Gas tubes that link cells with intercellular spaces are line pumps for transferring cell gases. The whole plant is penetrated by such vessels-pumps from the very roots.
Only in this case they pump gas and not liquid.
Tubules are so thin that liquid does not flow in them. And gas transmission via them technically does not differ in any way from the transmission of liquid through thicker vessels.
Do not confuse it with capillary effect — it does not create pressure or discharge!
Gas nanotubules are oxygen stable. Moreover, cells constantly produce carbon dioxide to protect tissues from oxygen.
Leaf skin as well as walls of intercellular spaces and gas tubes are impenetrable for water and gases because access of water of gas into the interior of leaves leads to partial or complete death.
Water gets there where it can in leaves only from roots through separate vessels. In advance it is filtered and processed by the immune system of a plant. Plants receive no more substances from outside.
Apart from slightly mineralized with nutritives water plants need only light.
It is the same story with an animal organism — air, water and food get inside only through special organs.
Direct penetration of these substances into an organism leads to illness and death.
There is no gas exchange between biological plants (any ones) and environment in nature!
There is only emission of waste cell gases and substances into atmosphere.