Let’s suppose that you were given a task to weigh a molecule of carbon dioxide. Noone has seen it yet and its existence is only a fantasy. This thing (fantasy) you use.
You will take a vessel of the known volume, fill it with carbon dioxide from a container and start to claim that there are exactly 6022000…000 molecules. Why? Because! Make up something, fantasies are allowed in science!
Then you weigh the vessel with gas on ordinary scales, subtract the weight of the vessel and the obtained weight of gas divide by the imaginative number of molecules. You will get weight of the molecule. The task is solved!
At the beginning of 19th century for quite a long time existed a theory of molecular structure of matter and the scientists still had nothing to show to the public.
But here appeared thelaw of combining volumesaccording to which the relationship between the volumes of reacting gases is presented by prime integral numbers. For example, 2 volumes of hydrogen unite with 1 volume of oxygen resulting in 2 volumes of watervapour. Or one volume of chloride unites with one volume of hydrogen resulting in 2 volumes of hydrogen chloride. Etc.
Moreover, it is very important that volumes are measured at the similar pressure and temperature. Considering this I’ll digress from the topic and say at once that in those mouldy times the level of the development of production relations was low in comparison to the modern situation. Weak were also the perceptions of the world structure. For example, the scientists of those times thought the warmth was the result of the molecule movement and that’s why they did not understand that for example, during the reproduction of water with the help of hydrogen and oxygen, in indivisible unity this way takes place the reproduction of the energy matter. And that’s why one can’t say that the reaction takes place «with the emission of heat». Before the combustion there was no heat neither in hydrogen, nor in oxygen. There was nothing to evolve, at first the heat must reproduce.
In other words, the law of combining volumes does not take into account all the material «adventures» that take place during the chemical interaction of gases.
Avogadro transformed the law of combining volumes into a hypothesis.
“The equal volumes of gaseous substance at the similar pressure and temperature contain the similar number of molecules so the gas density serves as the measure of their molecule masses”
Why? Because! It doesn’t tally with the experiment — if you fill a bucket with sand or pebble, or wheat, or carats, or sugar, or tennis balls or any balls or soap bubbles, or any other substance that consists of separate parts then quantity of particles of one and the same volume (bucket) will be different.
In other words, Avogadro’s law is a hypothesis of a hypothesis about elemental structure of the substance.
It is invented to calculate the weight of mythical molecules.
The most important thing here is pressure! Avogadro spoke about the law of combining volumes:
«The first hypothesis that appears in the connection with it and that seems to be the only acceptable one lies in the supposition that the number of component molecules of any gas is one and the same in one and the same volume all the time.»
That’s it — only one and that’s all! But reader can easily make up lots of explanations of the law of combining volumes, connected and not connected with the hypothesis about molecular structure of the substance.
12 grams of pure carbon isotope-12 (mole) at the negotiated pressure and temperature (i.e. Normal conditions) occupy 22, 41383 litres (molar volume) and, according to scientists’ «calculations» there is contained 6,02214179(30)*1023mole-1 molecules.
Avogadro made a supposition that if we take molar volume of any gas under the normal conditions then there will be exactly this number of molecules in it.
The weight of molar volume for different gases will be different. Divide this weight by Avogadro number and get the weight of the molecule and simultaneously the thing we dreamed of — the proof that molecules exist. Though fake one, imaginary but no one hasn’t paid attention to it for a long time.
While Avogadro number allows to «calculate» the weight of mythical molecules and other imagined structural substance units, the Avogadro’s law is very popular in the chemistry. It’s natural that scientists cling to it so strongly!
Considering the question how the number of molecules in the molar volume or in other words, Avogadro number was «calculated» and is still being «calculated» we may only say that it is a simple fraud based on the grounded on nothing fable about the molecular structure of substance and the most important criminal irresponsibility of pseudo calculators. You can read yourselves how they do it. I have only one request — when you stare in the book or at the screen try to see this nonsense. There is a lot of it there. Analyze! Just to remember the material you read can a piece of paper or a flash drive.
How can one make up a thing like that — the similar number of any gas particles in the same volume!!!???
By the way, according to Avogadro’s law molecules of any gas occupy the same volume. At the same pressure and temperature.
Try to explain it and understand yourselves in what way scientists explain this nonsense. With lifelong experience such a thing does not seem compatible!
Carats also have the same weight. Here we allegedly have a kind of «carat» property of any gaseous molecule to occupy the same volume under the similar conditions.
An obviously far-fetched property of mythical objects! Is it a multipurpose scabbard for any sable?!
If we take the hypothesis about the molecular substance structure as truth then Avogadro’s law quite logically comes out of the law of combining volumes. But it so strongly contradicts the life experience of people that it hasn’t been used for a long time.
But the time passed, the law of combining volumes did its part. There appeared formulas of molecules of main the chemical compounds, chemistry became more and more scientific-looking.
Though majority of people are normal, there is enough of avogadros. Here appeared another «genius» and did glue to the science that avogadro blooper about constant number of any molecules in the constant volume. And here we go again…
The law of combining volumes is a proof of absence of corpuscular, molecular, atomic structure of the substance!
Paying no attention to this obvious fact led to the appearance of purely imaginative but very handy for the science mountebanks law of Avogadro.
Life doesn’t like «if» and «when», but still if there was an adequate person instead of our pseudo-scientist then he’d have written: «It turns out that equal volumes of gaseous substance at the similar pressure and temperature contain one and the same number of molecules, and thus density of different gases can be used to measure masses of their molecules. Moreover, it turns out that molecules of any gases must occupy one and the same volume. But both things are clear nonsense.
That’s why it seems only right to take this hypothesis about corpuscular structure of the substance for an unfounded one.»
Such an «only one acceptable hypothesis» must come to normal person’s head after reading the law of combining volumes!
But adequacy, it seems, was in short supply at those times.
Well, it has not increased since then…