Molecular-kinetic theory is based on three points:
1. All bodies are composed of a large number of particles (molecules, atoms, or ions), between which there are gaps.
2. Particles of a substance move continuously and randomly.
3. Particles of a substance interact with each other: attract each other at small distances and repel each other, when these distances are reduced.
The science calls the random motion of particles constituting the alleged macroscopic bodies as thermal motion.
So when particles rush giddily, it means that the temperature is high. When they stroll, the temperature is low.
Molecular-kinetic theory is the modern scientific understanding of the internal structure of matter. Before the advent of molecular physics, scientists believed that the heat is transferred, reduced and accumulated through a special liquid – caloric.
Let us analyze both theories from the perspective of the customer – because school makes you study them, no matter whether you want to know about it or not. We will not touch formula, of course, and find out the “physical sense” of the theories.
And we’ll try to determine which one is really “high”.
Let us consider the theory in historical priority, starting with the caloric, but from the standpoint of modern ideas about the way it is.
Let us begin with an experiment: You put river sand into a frying pan and heat it.
As a result of the heating the grains do not begin to move randomly. The sand lies as it was, no matter whether you heat it or not. The same result is obtained by heating sand and stones under the sun in the deserts -there arises no movement.
During heating gases and liquids from the above, no movements can be observed. Only when liquids and gases are heated from below? There arise convection currents. But they are not chaotic; gravity causes them by strict laws and directions.
So in the macrocosm in which we live and which we can actually watch, heat does not go straight into motion. For converting heat into motion, a person had to come up with the machine.
The major producer of heat in the solar system is the Sun. The whole space of the solar system is filled with a moving flow of energy continuously emanating from the Sun. This flow is material. You may call it caloric or energy matter, the essence will not change – energy, including heat, does not need matter and its mythical chaotic movement of molecules and atoms of which it allegedly consists for its existence.
A paltry part of the total “solar wind” comes to the Earth and penetrates into the matter, depending on its energoscopicity. Just like water in varying degrees permeates everything depending on hygroscopicity.
Further sooner or later all energy matter stuck to the Earth is radiated back into the space.
Mythical molecules are positioned by the science as particles of matter obeying Newton’s laws, so they are like normal surrounding human bodies, too, can not get a boost as a result of direct contact with the energy matter and go into a state of oscillatory or chaotic motion. For example, when you set a coffee pot on fire, it can not get metal molecules to move faster and the reasoning of the kind: “the heat of fire is converted into kinetic energy of molecular vibrations of the metal, then into the kinetic energy of the molecules of water and boils the coffee …” is illiterate and fault. In reality people know that special heat engines are necessary for converting heat energy into motion. Dear scientists, stop fooling people!
The mythical continuous, random movement of mythical elements of substance is an circumvention of all of you, a criminal offense against humanity.
That is the idea of caloric based on the simple fact mainly of external origin of the heat on the Earth, explained the method of heating and cooling of bodies.
Now, let’s not just read but try to understand what scientists are trying to push you, telling stories about the molecular-kinetic structure of matter.
So, particles of matter interact with each other: attract each other over short distances and are repel when these distances are reduced.(See. top of the page, p.3)
In other words, each particle is supposedly located in the energy hole or connected with springs with its immediate neighbors – at any attempt to change the situation, some “springs” will be stretched, and others – shrink, and as a result, particle returns to its place.
It is also written that: 2. Particles of a substance and continuously and randomly.
But this is just “smoothly written”, but actually there exists “the interaction of molecules” (p.3), which is to be repeatedly overcome when approaching another molecule.
Representing events so that molecules infinitely and stupidly bounce off each other when they met, is not feasible, because they not only “are repelled when they approach each other”, but also “attracted when moving away”. Molecules should not only be pushed, but also to break out of their “embraces”.
That is kissing – get married!
Thus, paragraph 2 of the Molecular-kinetic theory can be performed only if each molecule has its own engine and well-established system of fuel supply. Otherwise, the Molecular-kinetic theory is a description of a perpetual motion machine – work is done without loss of energy.
Let’s do one more experiment: Take a cuvette designed for observation under the microscope, fill it with water and treat in the most powerful microscope to detect these very molecules of water moving randomly.
Nothing similar can be detected even in the latest models of electron microscopes and with the help of other advanced research methods!
I do not argue that the scientists saw somewhere, sometime, by some ingenious way some clusters and even supposedly separate molecules, atoms, electrons. Soon they would argue that they have seen the photons themselves! But the picture, which describes the Molecular-kinetic theory, can not be seen according to the very same molecular-kinetic theory – the particles of matter tremble or move (depending on the phase state of matter) in thermal trance quickly and at very long distances (compared to their size) and can not be pinned with a pin to watch them. And if the scientists say that they have seen something, then the thermal motion of particles does not exist.
Fundamentally different devices that can make a film of the life of nano, pico, femto-world are needed. Only in this case we can talk about the evidence of the existence of Molecular-kinetic theory, the chemical reactions of molecules, atoms, electrons, and other such “trifles”.
It is bad if the divination of the internal structure of matter will be persistently continued. This is the road to nowhere. The world is quite different than it is “drawn” by the science and there is no more than 1% of pure substance in the Universe. So you can estimate the value of scientific fuss about the internal structure of matter. Fraction of a percent of the necessary and vital level of research!
Yet on what is the belief in the existence of the molecules of substance based!?
The fact is clear – on the Brownian motion!
So let’s come back to our cuvette with water and continue experiments.
Let’s recall the general law of thermodynamics:
Any closed macroscopic system sooner or later goes into heat equilibrium from which it can never exit itself.
Moreover, molecular physics assumes that particles of matter in thermal equilibrium are distributed throughout its volume with uniform density and the number of particles moving in each direction in it is equal.
Now let’s “tint” the water in the cuvette with the suspended particles. Watching them through a microscope, we will see their classical chaotic motion, which, as you know, is called Brownian motion by the name of its discoverer. Since the nature of their movement excludes the existence of water flow and no other movement except moving the particles themselves is not visible, so in an attempt to understand the cause of Brownian motion, we have the right only for the logical reasoning, taking into account all the facts and theoretical positions of the Molecular-kinetic theory. Statements out of the blue like “water molecules are moving and push a particle” are not allowed, because the existence of water molecules and their thermal chaotic motion are not facts.
1. Brownian particle is moving, and the motion can only be a result of the force. And the force arises only as a result of the laws, but not chaos. That is, although the Brownian particle moves randomly, the movement of water molecules, which allegedly push them, can only be targeted, “meaningful”.
2. Since the same number of water molecules moves in each direction, to move the Brownian particle to the right, it is necessary to have a higher temperature to the left of it than the right. Then the left molecules will move faster and hit the right ones harder. But the difference in temperature contradicts the general law of thermodynamics!
3. Molecules and suspensions are particles of matter. Therefore, continuous and longstanding movement of the masses inside the cuvette must inevitably lead to a decrease in temperature therein. However, this does not happen! A perpetual motion machine? Of course not!
In the study of chaotic motion of suspended in liquids and gases particles, as in the study of any other natural phenomenon or event, you need to be guided only by the facts. Interpretation, explanation, hypothesis, theory and other “clever-cleverness” should be removed from the education and all the loopholes for their introduction into schools at all levels should be blocked by the law on education.
So in the textbook on the subject there should be listed only what is actually known about Brownian motion, and its explanation by unbalanced strikes of randomly moving molecules of substance should be removed from textbooks.
In particular, it was empirically found that by heating a liquid or gas, the motion of Brownian particles is accelerated, and by cooling it slows down.
After learning the basics of mechanics, a student already knows that in nature the heat is not transferred directly to the motion of objects and special machines are required for converting thermal energy into work. That is, the Brownian particles as grains of sand and other bodies can not start moving when heated. And the particles of substance also do not start moving when heated, if they really exist. Let me remind you (this you can also read yourself) that the science is positioning molecules as particles of matter. As separate bodies obeying Newton’s laws, able to move and “strike” a Brownian particle.
Convectional flows, thermal expansion and other macro-events in these experiments are excluded.
Thus, after punctual presentation of factual material on “Brownian motion” without any contrived interpretations and explanations, each student understands that the random movement of suspended particles is a proof, rather, of the absence of atomic-molecular structure of the substance than its presence. Because these explanations are not based on actual observation of the inner structure of matter. No one has ever seen the movement of mythical molecules of substance. It is possible to see only the movement of suspended particles.
That is one of the basic scientific paranoia is the “actual proof” of the discrete structure of matter, based only on the ASSUMPTION, that the Brownian motion is the result of collisions of molecules, of which, supposedly, consists the substance!!
May assumption be evidence?! No? But in science, this is possible!
Molecular-kinetic theory is contradicts common sense and consists of internal contradictions itself!
Anyone can do elemental analysis of the Molecular-kinetic theory, especially if he is a boxer or a gaper of this sport. You should find out beforehand which strikes are elastic, and which are not. Note that the Brownian particle is also supposedly composed of molecules. Do not forget that the molecules supposedly are not only repelled when they met, but also trying to capture each other when they are at a distance. Do not miss other conventions and facts.
If you prepare a program, in which you take into account all the content and requirements of the Molecular-kinetic theory, your computer will inevitably fail. It will rack its brains.
The cookers of the Molecular-kinetic theory decided and agreed, having no facts, that the particles of the suspension move due to the movement of the molecules of the liquid, but the facts obtained from the study of Brownian motion, were not analyzed. For example, the fact that the intensity of the Brownian motion is entirely independent of the material (density) of the particles was disregarded. Is there something to think about? Let this be your homework on this topic. Think it over!